Implementation of safer crossings can wield a full suite of design tools, from tactical to interim to capital construction. A wide variety of modular, pre-cast, and cast-in-place materials can be used to separate bikeway approaches from motor vehicles. The following suites of materials have been used successfully in North America and are listed on a scale from Quick-build to Permanent.
Directional markings, especially using green color, highlight the “cross-bike” path through the intersection and draw attention to potential conflict zones. Markings are also used to create two-stage turn boxes or bike boxes as storage for bikes waiting to cross, increasing intersection efficiency and comfort.
Bollards and other low-vertical elements can be installed to formalize exclusive turning and refuge spaces. They can be implemented relatively quickly and at low cost.
Low-to-the-ground objects such as temporary curbs are useful where a long mountable curb is desired but impractical. Angling the elements toward the center of the roadway allows bikes to easily exit the bikeway while dissuading drivers from entering the bikeway.
Molded rubber and plastic speed humps are mountable by motor vehicles at low speeds suitable for turns. They are an easy-to-implement speed reduction alternative to raised truck aprons or textured pavement. These off-the-shelf devices can be secured to asphalt or concrete road surfaces.
Bike parking, street-grade bike corrals, and bike share stations make positive use of the clear zone. Since these features do not block the view of approaching cars and bikes, they can replace automobile parking at the approach.
Modular refuge islands and bus boarding islands can be used at bikeway intersections, creating a level accessible boarding platform or simply a protected waiting area between the bikeway and the street.
Concrete elements can be implemented for relatively low cost where drainage is not an issue. Concrete refuge islands, extruded curb, and cast-in-place curbing, can often be built by sidewalk or highway repair crews. Pre-cast concrete, including parking stops or specially designed mountable elements, is more expensive but, like other modular elements, can be implemented quickly.
In larger capital implementations or roadway reconstruction, raised bike lanes and full truck aprons can be built to create a long-lasting addition to the streetscape.