Intersection Treatments

Designs for intersections with bicycle facilities should reduce conflict between bicyclists (and other vulnerable road users) and vehicles by heightening the level of visibility, denoting a clear right-of-way, and facilitating eye contact and awareness with competing modes. Intersection treatments can resolve both queuing and merging maneuvers for bicyclists, and are often coordinated with timed or specialized signals.

The configuration of a safe intersection for bicyclists may include elements such as color, signage, medians, signal detection, and pavement markings. Intersection design should take into consideration existing and anticipated bicyclist, pedestrian and motorist movements. In all cases, the degree of mixing or separation between bicyclists and other modes is intended to reduce the risk of crashes and increase bicyclist comfort. The level of treatment required for bicyclists at an intersection will depend on the bicycle facility type used, whether bicycle facilities are intersecting, the adjacent street function and land use.

Bike Boxes

A bike box is a designated area at the head of a traffic lane at a signalized intersection that provides bicyclists with a safe and visible way to get ahead of queuing traffic during the red signal phase. Continue reading

Intersection Crossing Markings

Bicycle pavement markings through intersections indicate the intended path of bicyclists through an intersection or across a driveway or ramp. They guide bicyclists on a safe and direct path through the intersection, and provide a clear boundary between the paths of through bicyclists and either through or crossing motor vehicles in the adjacent lane. Continue reading

Two-Stage Turn Queue Boxes

Two-stage turn queue boxes offer bicyclists a safe way make left turns at multi-lane signalized intersections from a right side cycle track or bike lane, or right turns from a left side cycle track or bike lane. Two-stage turn queue boxes may also be used at unsignalized intersections to simplify turns from a bicycle lane or cycle track onto a bicycle boulevard. At midblock crossing locations, a two-stage turn queue box may be used to orient bicyclists properly for safe crossings. Continue reading

Median Refuge Island

Median refuge islands are protected spaces placed in the center of the street to facilitate bicycle and pedestrian crossings. On two-way streets, crossings are facilitated by splitting movements into two stages separated by the direction of approaching vehicle traffic. Continue reading

Through Bike Lanes

For bicyclists traveling in a conventional bike lane or from a truncated cycle track, the approach to an intersection with vehicular turn lanes can present a significant challenge. For this reason it is vital that bicyclists are provided with an opportunity to correctly position themselves to avoid conflicts with turning vehicles. Continue reading

Combined Bike Lane/Turn Lane

A combined bicycle lane/turn lane places a suggested bike lane within the inside portion of a dedicated motor vehicle turn lane.  A dashed line can either delineate the space for bicyclists and motorists within the shared lane or indicate the intended path for through bicyclists.  This treatment includes signage advising motorists and bicyclists of proper positioning within the lane. Continue reading

Cycle Track Intersection Approach

This treatment covers guidance for cycle track design at intersection approaches with the purpose of the reducing turn conflicts for bicyclists or to provide connections to intersecting bicycle facility types. Continue reading